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Management Other concepts such as the use of multiple intelligences in managing people in organizations is explored. The paper concludes that human development theories are useful in providing a framework for managing people in a knowledge-based organization.
Before we examine how human development theories impact managing people in a knowledge-based organization, it is useful to review ignificant theorists who have contributed to our knowledge of human development.
Although now widely disputed, Freudian thinking is deeply imbedded in our culture and constantly influences our view of human nature.
His ideas heavily influenced the study of personality development, especially in adolescence and adulthood. This was the first theory to focus primarily on the formation of parent-child relationships. It explains the connection between relationships that occur early in our lives and those that happen later, including romantic ones.
Attachment theory has generated thousands of scientific studies, and has led to changes in many childcare policies, such as those allowing parents to stay with their children in hospitals. This theory modified traditional learning theory developed by such behaviorists as B.
Skinner, which was based on stimulus-response relationships. It considered learning to be no different among infants, children, adults, or even animals. This has been the most influential of the six major theories. In the s and s, it completely dominated the study of child development. Alone among the major theorists, Vygotsky believed that learning came first, and caused development.
These theories have implications for management. Generally, an analysis of these theories has resulted in the development of two competing theories important to management of people in organizations, namely, Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X represents a negative view of human nature that assumes individuals generally islike work, are irresponsible, and require close supervision to do their jobs Barnett, This is a very mechanistic view of management.
Theory Y denotes a positive view of human nature and assumes individuals are generally industrious, creative, and able to assume responsibility and exercise self-control in their jobs Barnett, Theory Y has as its core assumption that the physical and mental effort involved in work is natural and that individuals actively seek to engage in work Barnett, It also assumes that that close supervision and the treat of punishment are not the only means or even the best means for inducing employees to exert positive effort; that the ability to be innovative and creative exists among a large, rather than a small segment of the population; and that rather than valuing security above all other rewards associated with work, individuals desire rewards that satisfy their self-esteem and self-actualization needs Barnett, Theory Y is an organic view of management.
One would expect, then, that managers holding assumptions about human nature that are consistent with Theory X might exhibit a managerial style that is quite different than managers who hold assumptions consistent with Theory Y Barnett, The Concept of Multiple Intelligences The concept of multiple intelligences also has strong implications for managerial behavior.
InHoward Gardner, a Harvard University professor and psychologist, began to suggest that intelligence is multidimensional.
This suggests that in addition to being born with various MI, some of their intelligences are potentially determined by the cultural environment in which they are ocialized, including their work environment Weller, If managers encourage team members to increasingly use their preferred modes of intelligences, the effort and creativity that are likely to follow could lead to enhanced team productivity Green et al.
Therefore, the challenge for most managers will be to find ways to maximize the human potential that each individual brings to the eam Green et al. Implicit in both MIM and Theory Y is the belief that workers should have the freedom to contribute their knowledge and intelligences to the overall benefit of the organization, and not just perform work in a mindless, mechanical way.
Managers should value the knowledge and intelligences of employees, which eventually leads to the generation of diverse ideas on how to improve work to be performed, which leads to greater productivity.
The use of multiple intelligences, including linguistic brainstorming, debates, scenarios, etc. This forms the foundation for a knowledge-based organization, and will thrive in a Theory Y organizational setting.
Thinkers, who are free to explore their ideas, will be challenged in a Theory X setting, while thinkers are restricted from communicating and exploring their ideas, will be challenged in a Theory Y setting. Each stage involves a crisis of two opposing emotional forces businessball.Free Essay: Human Development Theories In addition to Freud’s psychodynamic theory there are four other human development philosophies; biological.
Pioneers in Human Development Theory: Freud, Piaget & Jung Adult and Older Adult Development Theories Gender Role Changes in Middle Adulthood Human Growth and Development Theories. Essay about human development.
Baumgartner what is a science that discredits evolutionary theory. In fields of society, human resource management essai sur l'inégalité des races, kinesiology, 1.
Hume, psychology is the authority of human life should be more the part i. This essay has three major sociological theories of the eight stages. Essay about The And Psychosocial Theories Of Human Development - What is the definition of human development.
Human development is the process of enlarging people’s freedom and opportunities, to improve their well-being. The argument of the essay is human growth and development is affected by different factors.
These are natural or man-made. The thesis statement of the essay appears to be “There are various theories that have been put forward in order to help people understand the life cycle development and the human behavior.”.
This essay will discuss some of the theories used to explain human growth and development and discuss the pros and cons of each theory in relation to different life stages and show how each theory can be applied to social work practice. The theories outlined in this essay include the debate over.