It is practiced by individuals belonging to an identifiable organization with a well-defined command-and-control structure, clear political, social or economic objectives, and a comprehensible ideology or self-interest Hoffman
Although there is scholarly consensus about how to define mass incarceration, there is some level of disagreement over its causes and consequences.
Some say it deters and incapacitates; others say that it weakens poor families, keeping them socially marginalized. The massive increases in imprisonment might be justifiable if public safety were dramatically improved. Given the high rates of imprisonment and racial disparity in imprisonment, incarceration may be significant as a generator of social inequality.
It is this possibility that recent research considers, focusing on effects on the individuals who cycle through the system and on those who are attached to them—their communities, families, and friends. Despite substantial obstacles to causal inference a point stressed in many of these readingsmuch of this research suggests that mass incarceration has the potential to substantially increase social inequality, because it is unequally distributed and because it has negative effects on prisoners and their social correlates.
Although much of the research considers the consequences of imprisonment for individuals in nations with lower overall rates of incarceration most notably the United Kingdom and The Netherlandsthe majority of the works cited here focus on effects in the United States, where incarceration levels are high.
General Overviews There are so many excellent general overviews of the meaning, causes, and consequences of mass incarceration that it would be impossible to list them all.
While earlier general overviews focus mostly on gaps in knowledge Hagan and DinovitzerLynch and Sabolsubsequent overviews focus on effects on inequality Pattillo, et al.
Crucially, there is sufficient diversity in the sophistication of these overviews that there is a general overview appropriate for almost anyone. Indeed, one overview even provides econometric analyses of the causes and consequences of mass imprisonment Raphael and Stoll Punishment beyond the legal offender.
Annual Review of Law and Social Science 3: Distinctively excellent for its summary and analysis of the qualitative research in this area. Available online for purchase or by subscription.
Hagan, John, and Ronit Dinovitzer. Collateral consequences of imprisonment for children, communities, and prisoners.
Crime and Justice Even years after its publication, this article contains a number of important and falsifiable hypotheses that have yet to be tested empirically. Prison use and social control. In Policies, processes, and decisions of the criminal justice system: Edited by Julie Horney, 7— National Institute of Justice.
The social effects of mass incarceration. This volume provides a nice combination of synopses of book-length manuscripts plus research available only in this volume. Raphael, Steven, and Michael A. Do prisons make us safer? The benefits and costs of the prison boom.
By far the most empirically sophisticated of the edited volumes and hence recommended only for those with some training in statistics preferably economics. Each chapter in this volume is nonetheless excellent. Wakefield, Sara, and Christopher Uggen.
Annual Review of Sociology Although the review itself is excellent, the discussion of obstacles to causal inference and the potential benefits of imprisonment if not mass imprisonment for inequality are especially insightful. Punishment and inequality in America. What are the consequences of mass imprisonment for inequality among adult men?
It is a classic in the field and should be among the first works read by anyone interested in mass incarceration.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.
The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy to the 21st century, especially to positive psychologists interested in meaning . Definition of life in English: life.
‘One of the defining evils of terrorism is that it uses human beings' lives to send a political message.’ ‘‘I think the biggest danger is well-meaning people frightening the life out of youngsters by pulling figures out of the air,’ Mr Johnson said.’.
Terrorism is often defined as those activities that i) involve violent acts towards human life that violate the law and ii) appear to be: intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population; influence policy of a government by intimidation or coercion; and finally affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction, murder or kidnapping.
Whether called mass incarceration, mass imprisonment, the prison boom, the carceral state, or hyperincarceration, this phenomenon refers to the current American experiment in incarceration, which is defined by comparatively and historically extreme rates of imprisonment and by the concentration of.
COMMUNIQUE #3 Haymarket Issue "I NEED ONLY MENTION in passing that there is a curious reappearance of the Catfish tradition in the popular Godzilla cycle of films which arose after the nuclear chaos unleashed upon Japan.