God's gratuitous presence Every authentic religious experience, in all cultural traditions, leads to an intuition of the Mystery that, not infrequently, is able to recognize some aspect of God's face. On the one hand, God is seen as the origin of what exists, as the presence that guarantees to men and women organized in a society the basic conditions of life, placing at their disposal the goods that are necessary. On the other hand, he appears as the measure of what should be, as the presence that challenges human action — both at the personal and at the social levels — regarding the use of those very goods in relation to other people.
Europe, to The Renaissance is one of the most interesting and disputed periods of European history.
Many scholars see it as a unique time with characteristics all its own. A second group views the Renaissance as the first two to three centuries of a larger era in European history usually called early modern Europewhich began in the late fifteenth century and ended on the eve of the French Revolution or with the close of the Napoleonic era Some social historians reject the concept of the Renaissance altogether.
Historians also argue over how much the Renaissance differed from the Middle Ages and whether it was the beginning of the modern world, however defined. The approach here is that the Renaissance began in Italy about and in the rest of Europe after and that it lasted until about It was a historical era with distinctive themes in learning, politics, literature, art, religion, social life, and music.
The changes from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance were significant, but not as great as historians once thought.
Renaissance developments influenced subsequent centuries, but not so much that the Renaissance as a whole can be called "modern.
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|Foundations in Palestine||The Middle Ages in Europe saw a decrease in prosperity, stability, and population in the first centuries of the period—to about AD, and then a fairly steady and general increase until the massive setback of the Black Death aroundwhich is estimated to have killed at least a third of the overall population in Europe, with generally higher rates in the south and lower in the north.|
|The Early Middle AgesUnit 5: No single faith or institution has had a more profound impact on Western Civilization than Christianity.|
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They saw the ancient world of Rome and Greecewhose literature, learning, and politics they admired, as an age of high achievement. But in their view, hundreds of years of cultural darkness followed because much of the learning and literature of the ancient world had been lost.
Indeed, Italian humanists invented the concept of the "Middle Ages" to describe the years between about and Scholastic philosophy, which the Italian humanists rejected, and a different style of Latin writing, which the humanists viewed as uncouth and barbarous, prevailed in the Middle Ages.
But Italian humanists believed that a new age was dawning. In the view of the humanists, the painter Giotto d. Most Italian intellectuals from the mid-fifteenth century on held these views.
Northern Europeans of the sixteenth century also reached the conclusion that a new age had dawned. They accepted the historical periodization of ancient, medieval, and Renaissance and added a religious dimension.
The former offered models of literature, culture, and good morality, while the New Testament and the church fathers, such as Sts. Augustine — and Jerome c. But then barbarous medieval culture replaced ancient eloquence, and, in their view, the theological confusion of medieval Scholasticism obscured the message of the New Testament.
Erasmus and his followers dedicated themselves to restoring good literature, meaning classical Greek and Latin, and good religion, meaning Christianity purged of Scholastic irrelevance and clerical abuses.
They believed that Christians could best live moral lives and attain salvation in the next life by following both Cicero and the New Testament.
They believed that there were no real differences between the moral precepts found in the pagans of ancient Greece and Rome and the Bible. The majority of scholars view the early humanist and vernacular writer Petrarch as the first important figure. He strongly criticized medieval habits of thought as inadequate and elevated ancient ideals and literature as models to emulate.
The result was the intellectual movement called humanism, which came to dominate Italian Latin schooling, scholarship, ethical ideas, and public discourse and spread to the rest of Europe in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries.
Both contemporaries and modern historians also see the Great Plague of towith its huge demographic losses 30 to 50 percent in affected areas and psychological impact as another dividing point between Middle Ages and Renaissance.
Next, a series of major political changes between and marked a new political era that was uniquely Renaissance. SpainFranceand England emerged as powerful territorial monarchies in the last quarter of the fifteenth century.
Their quarrels with each other and interventions in the affairs of smaller states through the next years dominated European politics. Finally, the invention of movable type in the s by Johannes Gutenberg c.
By the end of the yearsome nineteen towns had printing presses; by some towns had presses, and the spread of printing was far greater in the sixteenth century.
An efficient system of distribution and marketing spread printed books to every corner of Europe. The greater availability of books had an impact on practically every area of life, especially intellectual and religious life, so immense as to be beyond measurement.
It was based on the belief that the literary, scientific, and philosophical works of ancient Greece and Rome provided the best guides for learning and living. And humanists believed that the New Testament and early Christian authors offered the best spiritual advice. The nineteenth century invented the term "humanism.
Studia humanitatis meant humanistic studies, which were grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, and moral philosophy based on study of the standard ancient authors of Rome and, to a lesser extent, Greece. This is the famous definition presented in by the eminent historian Paul Oscar Kristeller — and now widely accepted.Sexual Utopia in Power: The Feminist Revolt Against Civilization - Kindle edition by F.
Roger Devlin. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Sexual Utopia in Power: The Feminist Revolt Against Civilization. The Renaissance produced an extraordinary amount of art, and the role of the artist differed from that in the Middle Ages.
The Renaissance had a passion for art. Commissions came from kings, popes, princes, nobles, and lowborn mercenary captains. During the Middle Ages, the influence of Christianity was much more obvious. During that time, the art and architecture were primarily religious in nature.
The calendar was the Church calendar whose holidays (holy days) were those of the Christian faith. The other factor contributing to the decline of the early medieval state was the. The Middle Ages were a time of enormous upheaval for Europeans and the Catholic Church. Social changes created by the rise of European universities and the spread of the Black Death transformed the face of European society.
In addition, Catholic policies regarding economics and the family were being. Who were the first Irish to land on the American continent and the time of their arrival are perhaps matters of conjecture rather than of historical proof; but that the Irish were there almost at the beginning of the colonial era is a fact support by historical records.
The various nations of Europe. Sources. A considerable portion of this article being based on unpublished material, the following notices are necessarily incomplete, and to a large extent antiquated.