Higher Institute for Applied Sciences and Technology Taiwan, Republic of China[ edit ] Taiwan has more than universities two-thirds were established after the swhile only a third of them are public universities.
What happened to the New Orleans public schools following the tragic levee breeches after Hurricane Katrina is truly unprecedented. Within the span of one year, all public-school employees were fired, the teacher contract expired and was not replaced, and most attendance zones were eliminated.
The state took control of almost all public schools and began holding them to relatively strict standards of academic achievement. Over time, the state turned all the schools under its authority over to charter management organizations CMOs that, in turn, dramatically reshaped the teacher workforce.
A few states and districts nationally have experimented with one or two of these reforms; many states have increased the number of charter schools, for example. But no city had gone as far on any one of these dimensions or considered trying all of them at once. New Orleans essentially erased its traditional school district and started over.
In the process, the city has provided the first direct test of an alternative to the system that has dominated American public education for more than a century.
Dozens of districts around the country are citing the New Orleans experience to justify their own reforms. The unprecedented nature of the reforms and level of national and international attention by themselves make the New Orleans experience a worthy topic of analysis and debate. But also consider that the underlying principles are what many reformers have dreamed about for decades—that schools would be freed from most district and union contract rules and allowed to innovate.
They would be held accountable not for compliance but for results. There is clearly a lot of hype. The question is, are the reforms living up to it? Specifically, how did the reforms affect school practices and student learning? The rest of the country wants to know how well the New Orleans school reforms have worked.
But the residents of New Orleans deserve to know. Before the Storm Assessing the effects of this policy experiment involves comparing the effectiveness of New Orleans schools before and after the reforms.
As in most districts, before Hurricane Katrina, an elected board set New Orleans district policies and selected superintendents, who hired principals to run schools. Principals hired teachers, who worked under a union contract. Students were assigned to schools based mainly on attendance zones.
The New Orleans public school district was highly dysfunctional. Ina private investigator found that the district system, which had about 8, employees, inappropriately provided checks to nearly 4, people and health insurance to 2, people. Inthe Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI issued indictments against 11 people for criminal offenses against the district related to financial mismanagement.
Eight superintendents served between andlasting on average just 11 months. This dysfunction, combined with the socioeconomic background of city residents—83 percent of students were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch—contributed to poor academic results. The graduation rate was 56 percent, at least 10 percentage points below the state average.
As a result, some reforms were already under way when Katrina hit in August There were some signs of improvement in student outcomes just before the storm, but, as we will see, these were relatively modest compared with what came next. Gradually, the RSD turned schools over to charter operators, and the teacher workforce shifted toward alternatively prepared teachers from Teach for America and other programs.
This first difference is insufficient, however, because other factors may have affected the treatment group at the same time. This calls for making the same before-and-after comparison in a group that is identical, except for being unaffected by the treatment.
Subtracting these two—taking the difference of the two differences between the treatment and comparison groups—yields a credible estimate of the policy effect.
We have carried out two difference-in-differences strategies: We study only those students who returned to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.
The advantage of this approach is that it compares the same students over time. One disadvantage is that it omits nonreturnees. Also, we can only study returnees over a short period of time—afterthey no longer have measurable outcomes to study.
We consider the achievement growth of different cohorts of students before and after the reforms—for example, students in 3rd grade in and students in 3rd grade in The advantages here are that we can include both returnees and nonreturnees, and we can use this strategy to study longer-term effects.
But the students are no longer the same. In both strategies, the New Orleans data set includes all publicly funded schools in the city, including those governed by the district OPSBsince all public schools were influenced by the reforms.
The main comparison group includes other districts in Louisiana that were affected by Hurricane Katrina, and by Hurricane Rita, which came soon afterward. This helps account for at least some of the trauma and disruption caused by the storms, the quality of schools students attended in other regions while their local schools were closed, and any changes in the state tests and state education policies that affected both groups.
Effects on Average Achievement Figure 1 shows the scores for each cohort, separately for New Orleans and the matched comparison group.We are delighted to invite abstract submissions for Public Health Science: A National Conference Dedicated to New Research in UK Public Health, to be held in Belfast, UK, on Nov 23, The North Carolina Department of Public Instruction implements the State's public school laws and State Board of Education's policies governing pre-kindergarten through 12th grade public education.
Given that state appropriations for public higher education decreased by 44 percent per student from , the author of this paper sought to explore the very real effects of declining state appropriations for public higher education—on students and on the institutions themselves.
Education research paper topics offer education majors a choice of samples on how to write projects on administration, classroom managment, curriculum development, early childhood education, elementary education, philosophy of education, children with special needs, and education theories.
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