Introduction It is important to properly and appropriately cite references in scientific research papers in order to acknowledge your sources and give credit where credit is due.
This guide is being written to assist students when they are citing sources in their paper. In this guide, you will find two types of citations used. These two types of citations are only examples.
If you want to use a different method and there are several other methods — such as Chicago, APA, Legal — to name a fewby all means do so, but I have noticed that many students lost marks on their papers because they did not properly cite or their bibliographies were incorrect.
While there may not be any single correct way to introduce sources in a paper, there are some key rules that must be observed in order for the sources to be correct. Do not simply place a quote at the beginning of a sentence and expect it to be sufficient. It can be confusing to the reader and does not allow for an even flow in the paper.
It is easier for the reader to read and it provides a highlight of the quote demonstrates to the reader that the information is important. However, do not put quotation marks at the beginning or the end of the quote.
You may, however, choose to shrink the font to 11pt if you wish it can save some space and it also further highlights the importance of the quote. This is a question that you must answer for yourself.
It is entirely optional on which citation method your chose to use in your paper. However, you must choose one method and be consistent throughout your paper.
This is a brief breakdown of the differences between footnotes and endnotes. Footnotes can typically appear in one of two ways in a paper.
Each citation is numerically numbered in sequential order starting with 1 and continuing until the paper is done. Endnotes appear that the end of the paper. While the choice is your as to the method of citation you use, remember that it is easier one the reader if a student uses footnotes because all of the relevant sourcing information i.
If it is not then the citation is incomplete and is hence incorrect.
You cannot use both. This means choose one type of citation and be consistent throughout your paper. However, do not go any smaller than 10pt.
Edited Work a Chapter written by one author in a book edited by another author: Fox and Graham White, eds. This is not a real source! Morton, Charter Politics Scarborough: More Than Three Authors: Canada,  2 S. Alberta,  1 S. Ibid, Supra and Hereinafter Rules: This is Latin and can be loosely translated to mean the same of immediate above source.
This is used when the source you are quoting from is the same as the source immediately previous to it.
Since this is a Latin word, it must be italicized. This is Latin and can be loosely translated to mean see above. This is different from ibid because it means see another source already mentioned that is not directly above. This is a shortcut that can be used when referencing cases.
Hereinafter simply means that after this citation the source will be referred to as something. This can work both for cases within the text of your paper and future citations.
It is, however, your choice as to whether you want to use ibid, supra and the hereinafter rules personally, I use them because it saves a significant amount of time and space in your paper.
Footnotes and endnotes also have one other purpose.Political Science. , FEN Finance. , MRN and Citations. Total References: Total number of references to other papers that have been resolved to date, for papers in the SSRN eLibrary.
Total Citations: Total number of cites to papers in the SSRN eLibrary whose links have been resolved to date. Total Footnotes: Total number. The pages on Political Theory are kept distinct because, within political science, the practice of doing theoretical work is often different from the process of doing empirical research, although there is plenty of overlap.
The core of the website is a series of pages that mirror major stages in writing a major undergraduate thesis. APSA Style. The most recent APSA Style Manual () asks writers to use the parenthetical documentation system in the Chicago Manual of Style (not the note system) for documentation in political science writing.
For a brief overview, see pages 17 and following in the APSA manual. APSA Style. The most recent APSA Style Manual () asks writers to use the parenthetical documentation system in the Chicago Manual of Style (not the note system) for documentation in political science writing.
For a brief overview, see pages 17 and following in the APSA manual. Political science research paper conclusion recommendation Storm warnings poem essays song of solomon essay thesis help illustrated essay on karma, august global regents thematic essay on geography essay about ingredients in milk.
Citing References in Scientific Research Papers. Compiled by Timothy T. Allen, revised This paper greatly expands upon a handout originally prepared by an unknown author for distribution to students in introductory earth science courses at Dartmouth College.