Chapter 1 Introduction The presence and intensity of media influences—television, radio, music, computers, films, videos, and the Internet—are increasingly recognized as an important part of the social ecology of children and youth, and these influences have become more visible and volatile in recent decades.
Social Movements The Role and Influence of Mass Media Mass media is communication—whether written, broadcast, or spoken—that reaches a large audience. This includes television, radio, advertising, movies, the Internet, newspapers, magazines, and so forth.
Mass media is a significant force in modern culture, particularly in America. Sociologists refer to this as a mediated culture where media reflects and creates the culture. Communities and individuals are bombarded constantly with messages from a multitude of sources including TV, billboards, and magazines, to name a few.
These messages promote not only products, but moods, attitudes, and a sense of what is and is not important. Mass media makes possible the concept of celebrity: In fact, only political and business leaders, as well as the few notorious outlaws, were famous in the past. As recently as the s and s, television, for example, consisted of primarily three networks, public broadcasting, and a few local independent stations.
Not only has availability increased, but programming is increasingly diverse with shows aimed to please all ages, incomes, backgrounds, and attitudes.
What role does mass media play? Legislatures, media executives, local school officials, and sociologists have all debated this controversial question. While opinions vary as to the extent and type of influence the mass media wields, all sides agree that mass media is a permanent part of modern culture.
Three main sociological perspectives on the role of media exist: This theory originated and was tested in the s and s. Critics point to two problems with this perspective.
How media frames the debate and what questions members of the media ask change the outcome of the discussion and the possible conclusions people may draw. Second, this theory came into existence when the availability and dominance of media was far less widespread.
Those people who own and control the corporations that produce media comprise this elite. Advocates of this view concern themselves particularly with massive corporate mergers of media organizations, which limit competition and put big business at the reins of media—especially news media.
Their concern is that when ownership is restricted, a few people then have the ability to manipulate what people can see or hear. For example, owners can easily avoid or silence stories that expose unethical corporate behavior or hold corporations responsible for their actions.
The issue of sponsorship adds to this problem. Advertising dollars fund most media.
Networks aim programming at the largest possible audience because the broader the appeal, the greater the potential purchasing audience and the easier selling air time to advertisers becomes. Thus, news organizations may shy away from negative stories about corporations especially parent corporations that finance large advertising campaigns in their newspaper or on their stations.
Media watchers identify the same problem at the local level where city newspapers will not give new cars poor reviews or run stories on selling a home without an agent because the majority of their funding comes from auto and real estate advertising.
This influence also extends to programming. Critics of this theory counter these arguments by saying that local control of news media largely lies beyond the reach of large corporate offices elsewhere, and that the quality of news depends upon good journalists.
They contend that those less powerful and not in control of media have often received full media coverage and subsequent support. Predominantly conservative political issues have yet to gain prominent media attention, or have been opposed by the media. Advocates of this view point to the Strategic Arms Initiative of the s Reagan administration.
The public failed to support it, and the program did not get funding or congressional support. Culturalist theory The culturalist theory, developed in the s and s, combines the other two theories and claims that people interact with media to create their own meanings out of the images and messages they receive.
This theory sees audiences as playing an active rather than passive role in relation to mass media. One strand of research focuses on the audiences and how they interact with media; the other strand of research focuses on those who produce the media, particularly the news.
Theorists emphasize that audiences choose what to watch among a wide range of options, choose how much to watch, and may choose the mute button or the VCR remote over the programming selected by the network or cable station.
Both groups of researchers find that when people approach material, whether written text or media images and messages, they interpret that material based on their own knowledge and experience.
Thus, when researchers ask different groups to explain the meaning of a particular song or video, the groups produce widely divergent interpretations based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, and religious background. Therefore, culturalist theorists claim that, while a few elite in large corporations may exert significant control over what information media produces and distributes, personal perspective plays a more powerful role in how the audience members interpret those messages.Speculation as to the causes of the recent mass shooting at a Batman movie screening in Colorado has reignited debates in the psychiatric community about media violence and its effects on human behavior.
Mass Media on Today’s Young People How are children and young adults affected by the movies and television programs they see, the radio programs and recordings they hear, the newspapers, magazines, and books they read?
Modern technology has made possible a The influence of mass media on adults is closely related to their influence on. Kids and the media is a growing concern. Even very young children in our society get a big daily dose of television, video games and music lyrics.
While such media can provide education and entertainment, they can also damage children. For courses in Introduction to Mass Communication Help students see the impact of the media upon society and our daily lives The Media of Mass Communication encourages students to explore the latest economic, technological, cultural, and political shifts in media through a historical context.
Author John Vivian prompts students to analyze ongoing transformations in mass media. Mass media play an important role in everyday life.
There is a growing use of media in early childhood, so it is not surprising that they greatly influence children and young people as well as become an essential element of education. THE INFLUENCE OF MEDIA ON CHILDREN Abstract This study covers the media‟s impact on Children‟s education, specifically the use of media and technology, children‟s educational TV, and some electronical gadgets ownership.