Here population nearly doubled in 10 years, and home prices tripled and urban planning circles hailed the boom as the new America at the far exurban fringe.
In common language equity means "the quality of being impartial" or "something that is fair and just. Chitre argues, and Emerging markets countries, such as India and China, often would rather analyze Per capita emissions instead of committing to aggregate Emissions reduction because of historical contributions by the Industrialized nations to the climate change crisis, under the principle of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities.
Climate change scenario Projected total carbon dioxide emissions between — using the six illustrative "SRES" marker scenarios.
Some of these projections aggregate anthropogenic emissions into a single figure as a " carbon dioxide equivalent " CO2-eq. The effects of aerosol and land-use changes e.
Six of the SRES emissions scenarios have been used to project possible future changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Uncertainties such as the removal of carbon from the atmosphere by " sinks " e. Atmospheric GHG concentrations can be related to changes in global mean temperature by the climate sensitivity.
Hope for example, found that uncertainty over the climate sensitivity was the most important factor in determining the social cost of carbon an economic measure of climate change impacts.
Cost—benefit analysis[ edit ] Standard cost—benefit analysis CBA  also referred to as a monetized cost—benefit framework  can be applied to the problem of climate change. If, for example, some countries were to benefit from future climate change but others lose out, there is no guarantee that the winners would compensate the losers;  similarly, if some countries were to benefit from reducing climate change but others lose out, there would likewise be no guarantee that the winners would compensate the losers.
This criterion has been justified on the basis that: This contrasts with a strategy in which no action is taken until research resolves all key uncertainties. One of the problems of climate change are the large uncertainties over the potential impacts of climate change, and the costs and benefits of actions taken in response to climate change, e.
A near-term hedging strategy concerned with reducing future climate impacts might favour stringent, near-term emissions reductions. To put it differently, stringent near-term emissions abatement can be seen as having an option value in allowing for lower, long-term stabilization targets.
This option may be lost if near-term emissions abatement is less stringent. This may suggest an approach where near-term emissions abatement is more modest. Economics of climate change mitigation The mitigation portfolio. The first were resilient strategies.
This seeks to identify a range of possible future circumstances, and then choose approaches that work reasonably well across all the range. The second were adaptive strategies. The idea here is to choose strategies that can be improved as more is learned as the future progresses.
Granger Morgan et al. Portfolio theory[ edit ] An example of a strategy that is based on risk is portfolio theory. This suggests that a reasonable response to uncertainty is to have a wide portfolio of possible responses. In the case of climate change, mitigation can be viewed as an effort to reduce the chance of climate change impacts Goldemberg et al.The Impact of Population on CO2 Emissions: Evidence from European Countries 1 Impact-Population-Affluence-Technology.
3 energy intensity and smaller household sizes. Previous research also outlined the energy intensity (the effect of productivity on emissions) and global technical progress.
As a result the energy/GDP ratio – often called the “energy intensity” of the economy – declined by 49% from to , and is projected to fall by another 42% by 7. If the structure is designed in a manner that the positive forces override the negative forces then there is a beneficial release of bio-energy, which .
New York Times Population Debate. March 17, Bill Ryerson The New York Times is publishing a series of articles on the impact immigrants are having on American institutions, with the first article focusing on educating new immigrants.
Affluence's elasticity is certainly tempered by the share of residential energy from electricity (Sh electric), a variable that is highly related to, and indeed, probably caused by affluence (as discussed above). Energy return on investment (EROI) is a means of measuring the quality of various fuels by calculating the ratio between the energy delivered by a particular fuel to society and the energy invested in the capture and delivery of this energy.