Himmelstein and Hannah Bruckner, Pediatrics Jan.
Enhancing domestic security against terrorism[ edit ] Main article: Patriot Act, Title I Title I authorizes measures to enhance the ability of domestic security services to prevent terrorism. The title established a fund for counter-terrorist activities and increased funding for the Terrorist Screening Center which is administered by the FBI.
The military was authorized to provide assistance in some situations that involve weapons of mass destruction when so requested by the Attorney General.
The National Electronic Crime Task Force was expanded, along with the President 's authority and abilities in cases of terrorism.
The title also condemned the discrimination against Arab and Muslim Americans that happened soon after the September 11 terrorist attacks. The impetus for many of the provisions came from earlier bills, for instance the condemnation of discrimination was originally proposed by Senator Tom Harkin D - IA in an amendment to the Combatting Terrorism Act ofthough in a different form.
It originally included "the prayer of Cardinal Theodore McCarrickthe Archbishop of Washington in a Mass on September 12, for our Nation and the victims in the immediate aftermath of the terrorist hijackings and attacks in New York City, Washington, D.
Surveillance procedures[ edit ] Main article: Patriot Act, Title II Title II is titled "Enhanced Surveillance Procedures", and covers all aspects of the surveillance of suspected terrorists, those suspected of engaging in computer fraud or abuse, and agents of a foreign power who are engaged in clandestine activities.
In particular, the title allows government agencies to gather "foreign intelligence information" from both U. Also removed was the statutory requirement that the government prove a surveillance target under FISA is a non-U.
Wiretaps were expanded to include addressing and routing information to allow surveillance of packet switched networks  —the Electronic Privacy Information Center EPIC objected to this, arguing that it does not take into account email or web addresses, which often contain content in the address information.
Those who operate or own a "protected computer" can give permission for authorities to intercept communications carried out on the machine, thus bypassing the requirements of the Wiretap statute. The law governing obligatory and voluntary disclosure of customer communications by cable companies was altered to allow agencies to demand such communications under U.
Title 18 provisions relating to the disclosure of electronic communications chapterpen registers and trap and trace devices chapter and stored communicationsthough it excluded the disclosure of cable subscriber viewing habits.
IP addressespayment method and bank account and credit card numbers. The so-called "sneak and peek" law allowed for delayed notification of the execution of search warrants.
The period before which the FBI must notify the recipients of the order was unspecified in the Act—the FBI field manual says that it is a "flexible standard"  —and it may be extended at the court's discretion. The court found the searches to violate the provision that prohibits unreasonable searches in the Fourth Amendment to the U.
These are seen as important by the Department of Justice because they believe that terrorists can exploit wiretap orders by rapidly changing locations and communication devices such as cell phones,  while opponents see it as violating the particularity clause of the Fourth Amendment.
The sunset provision of the Act also took into account any ongoing foreign intelligence investigations and allowed them to continue once the sections had expired.
Anti-money-laundering to prevent terrorism[ edit ] Main article: It was divided into three subtitles, with the first dealing primarily with strengthening banking rules against money laundering, especially on the international stage.
The second attempts to improve communication between law enforcement agencies and financial institutions, as well as expanding recordkeeping and reporting requirements. The third subtitle deals with currency smuggling and counterfeiting, including quadrupling the maximum penalty for counterfeiting foreign currency.
The first subtitle tightened the recordkeeping requirements for financial institutions, making them record the aggregate amounts of transactions processed from areas of the world where money laundering is a concern to the U. It also made institutions put into place reasonable steps to identify beneficial owners of bank accounts and those who are authorized to use or route funds through payable-through accounts.
Treasury was charged with formulating regulations intended to foster information sharing between financial institutions to prevent money-laundering. Similarly, mergers between insured depository institutions and non-insured depository institutions that have a bad track record in combating money-laundering could be blocked.
It prohibited shell banks that are not an affiliate of a bank that has a physical presence in the U. It also prohibits or restricts the use of certain accounts held at financial institutions.
It is expected that additional scrutiny will be applied by the U. Banks must identify all the nominal and beneficial owners of any private bank account opened and maintained in the U. There is also an expectation that they must undertake enhanced scrutiny of the account if it is owned by, or is being maintained on behalf of, any senior political figure where there is reasonable suspicion of corruption.Copies posted here may not be the most recent.
Check at Penny Hill Press site to see if a more recent version is available.. The U.S. Embassy to Italy has done an excellent job of organizing many of the State Department copies of CRS reports. 18 U.S. Code § - Definitions. US Code; Notes; prev involve violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State, may be cited as the ‘Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism Convention Implementation Act of ’.
RL -- FBI Intelligence Reform Since September 11, Issues and Options for Congress. Countering and preventing terrorism is a primary concern for state and local law enforcement agencies as well as the federal government. Terrorists are those who support or commit ideologically motivated violence to .
The CJIS Security Policy represents the shared responsibility of FBI CJIS, CJIS Systems Agency, and State Identification Bureaus for the lawful use and appropriate protection of criminal justice. Summary: This paper provides a detailed analysis of the federal, state, and international laws that affect circus animals.
It also focuses specific attention on three species (primates, elephants, and big cats) that are a special concern for circuses.