Biomass Energy Sector Planning Guide Overview The Alliance has developed strategies that both improve utilization of biomass as well as strengthen supply chains and markets for cleaner fuels over time. Five Pillars People traditionally have had a limited choice of fuels, primarily due to availability, affordability, and accessibility. Because the fuel supply chain touches so many environmental, economic, social, and health issues, the impacts and opportunities are complex. Our fuels strategy starts from understanding the challenges, benefits, and negative impacts of different fuel choices.
Electricity generationClean coal technologyGlobal warmingand List of coal power stations Coal burnt as a solid fuel to produce electricity is called thermal coal. Coal is also used to produce very high temperatures through combustion. Efforts around the world to reduce the use of coal have led some regions to switch to natural gas.
When coal is used for electricity generationit is usually pulverized and then burned in a furnace with a boiler. Instead of pulverizing the coal and burning it directly as fuel in the steam-generating boiler, the coal is gasified see coal gasification to create syngaswhich is burned in a gas turbine to produce electricity just like natural gas is burned in a turbine.
Hot exhaust gases from the turbine are used to raise steam in a heat recovery steam generator which powers a supplemental steam turbine. On the other hand, much may have to be left in the ground to avoid climate change,   so maximum use could be reached sometime in the s.
Coal-fired generation puts out about twice the amount of carbon dioxide—around a tonne for every megawatt hour generated—than electricity generated by burning natural gas at kg of greenhouse gas per megawatt hour.
In Canada some coal power plantssuch as the Hearn Generating Stationswitched from coal to natural gas. Coke fuel Coke oven at a smokeless fuel plant in WalesUnited Kingdom Coke is a solid carbonaceous residue derived from coking coal a low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal, also known as metallurgical coalwhich is used in manufacturing steel and other iron products.
Metallurgical coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. Coking coal should be low in ash, sulfurand phosphorusso that these do not migrate to the metal. However, the alternative route is direct reduced ironwhere any carbonaceous fuel can be used to make sponge or pelletised iron.
Coke from coal is grey, hard, and porous and has a heating value of Some cokemaking processes produce byproducts, including coal tarammonialight oils, and coal gas.
Petroleum coke petcoke is the solid residue obtained in oil refiningwhich resembles coke but contains too many impurities to be useful in metallurgical applications.
Coal gasification and Underground coal gasification Coal gasification, as part of an integrated gasification combined cycle IGCC coal-fired power station, is used to produce syngasa mixture of carbon monoxide CO and the hydrogen H2 gas to fire gas turbines to produce electricity.
The versatility of syngas also allowed it to be converted into transportation fuels, such as gasoline and diesel, through the Fischer-Tropsch process ; alternatively, syngas can be converted into methanolwhich can be blended into fuel directly or converted to gasoline via the methanol to gasoline process.
Alternatively, the hydrogen obtained from gasification can be used for various purposes, such as powering a hydrogen economymaking ammonia, or upgrading fossil fuels. During gasification, the coal is mixed with oxygen and steam while also being heated and pressurized.
During the reaction, oxygen and water molecules oxidize the coal into carbon monoxide COwhile also releasing hydrogen gas H2. This process has been conducted in both underground coal mines and in the production of town gas which was piped to customers to burn for illumination, heating, and cooking.
If hydrogen is the desired end-product, however, the syngas is fed into the water gas shift reactionwhere more hydrogen is liberated. Coal liquefaction Coal can also be converted into synthetic fuels equivalent to gasoline or diesel by several different direct processes which do not intrinsically require gasification or indirect conversion.
These temperatures optimize the production of coal tars richer in lighter hydrocarbons than normal coal tar. The coal tar is then further processed into fuels. An overview of coal liquefaction and its future potential is available.
If coal liquefaction is done without employing either carbon capture and storage CCS technologies or biomass blending, the result is lifecycle greenhouse gas footprints that are generally greater than those released in the extraction and refinement of liquid fuel production from crude oil.
Sequestration adds to the cost of production. Refined coal Main article: Refined coal Refined coal is the product of a coal-upgrading technology that removes moisture and certain pollutants from lower-rank coals such as sub-bituminous and lignite brown coals.
It is one form of several precombustion treatments and processes for coal that alter coal's characteristics before it is burned. The goals of precombustion coal technologies are to increase efficiency and reduce emissions when the coal is burned.In a recent letter to the D.C.
In a recent letter to the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals, Troutman Sanders attorney Peter Glaser argues that “EPA far understated the effects of the Clean Power Plan (CPP) by exaggerating the amount of coal generation that will retire even without the rule.” Ironically, the smoking gun evidence is in the agency’s updated modeling, which now tallies with U.S. Energy Information. Federal Advisory Committee Act The NCC is a non-profit advisory group to the Secretary of Energy, chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act. Pulverised coal power plants account for about 97% of the world's coal-fired capacity. The conventional types of this technology have an efficiency of around 35%.
Circuit Court of Appeals, Troutman Sanders attorney Peter Glaser argues that “EPA far understated the effects of the Clean Power Plan (CPP) by exaggerating the amount of coal generation that will retire even without the rule.” Ironically, the smoking gun evidence is in the agency’s updated modeling, which now tallies with U.S.
Energy Information. On March 28, , President Donald Trump signed the Executive Order on Energy Independence (E.O. ), which calls for a review of the Clean Power Plan.
Utilities are increasingly choosing natural gas over coal for meeting electricity demand, a trend driven by higher coal prices, sharp declines in natural gas prices, and standards aimed at limiting harmful pollution from coal-fired power plants.
As Australia's energy debate heats up, some politicians are calling for cleaner and more efficient coal power stations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
The Global Alliance For Clean Cookstoves is a public-private initiative to save lives, improve livelihoods, empower women, and protect the environment by creating a thriving global market for clean and efficient household cooking solutions.
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