Saunier, a native of Metz, France, and doctoral candidate at the University of Montreal, had traveled to Cuba with a student group. Collier later visited Saunier in Canada in Januarywhere she introduced him to Duclos.
Even once Raul and Fidel Castro are dead, it's rather unlikely that the Cuban government will suddenly turn to a political system that leans heavily in favor of relatively free markets.
As has been the case with China, the ruling class of Cuba will find ways to perpetuate itself and maintain political control while keeping for itself a substantial amount of the wealth produced by the labors of the common people. It will likely loosen up on its control of the economy because it recognizes that more-free economies are more productive than less-free economies.
But, don't look for Cuba to become a haven for entrepreneurship any time soon. Even as the economy becomes slightly more free, however, Cuba will remain poorer than most of its neighbors indefinitely, and even if Cuba turned into a Caribbean version of Singapore — something that's exceedingly unlikely — it would remain far poorer than even many of its Latin American neighbors for decades.
This is because, in spite of what our politicians may tell us, people cannot be made more prosperous by the government's simply wishing it to be so. After all, if wealth could be produced by government fiat, then the Cuban and North Korean regimes, neither of which have faced any organized political opposition, have both enjoyed nearly untrammeled power to "improve" the economy without limit.
In real life, though, wealth can only be built through the arduous process of work, saving, and capital accumulation. There is no question that some people can benefit from government mandated redistribution of wealth, but to have wealth, it must first be created by producing things or services of value, and by foregoing consumption now in order to invest and obtain more consumption later.
It's easy to state this, but it is far more difficult to actually do it. And most frustrating of all: The Case of East Germany and Eastern Europe While there is no such thing as a truly controlled experiment in the fields of economics or politics, we do have some cases that convincingly demonstrate how political revolutions are insufficient to effect an economic one all by themselves.
For example, even 25 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the areas of Germany that once groaned under the soviet-style regime known as the German Democratic Republic remain poorer than the areas of Germany that once formed what was commonly called West Germany.
Inthe Washington Post reported how East Germany has lower levels of disposable income, high unemployment rates, and is generally less prosperous.
This in turn has led to the old East Germany having fewer young people, many of whom move west for better jobs.
Fortune's Chris Matthews went on to observe "If you look at statistics such as per capita income or worker productivity, they also point to the large disparity in economic development between east and west. But that was then. Nowadays, the East German regime is gone, and Germany is, relatively speaking, one of the most market-oriented economies on earth.
Eastern Germany shares a government with western Germany. So, why is eastern Germany still poor compared to its western German neighbors? The answer lies in the fact that even though the legal and political systems in eastern Germany are the same as in the West, the East suffers from the fact that it lost out on decades of capital accumulation and growth in worker productivity while under the boot of the Soviets.
The German case offers the most excellent comparison of course, because prior to World War II, western and eastern Germans enjoyed similar political systems for many decades.
Moreover, the western and eastern Germans were similar both ethnically and culturally. Thus, the comparison allows us to focus on regime differences in the age of the Cold War.
We can look beyond just the East Germans as well. We might ask ourselves, for example, why Poland, with its Western orientation and long tradition of parliamentary and decentralized governments remains so relatively poor.
The same might be said of the Czech Republic as well, where the principal city, Prague, was once the second city of the Austrian Empire and was a center of European wealth and culture.
The Czechs too, have never regained their relative place in terms of European wealth. Part of the explanation lies in the fact that the legacy of an abandoned political system can live on for decades even after regime change. For example, as China opened parts of its economy to international markets, the country started to grow, and we are now seeing the effects of decades of relative economic liberalization.
It is true that many areas in China continue to lack significant freedoms, but it would be a much different China today had it refused to change its institutions decades ago. Clearly, the fact that the old Eastern Bloc countries have moved toward liberalization has set those countries on a path toward greater economic prosperity.
That by itself, however, cannot put it on a par with countries that never suffered the effects of decades of communism. An Extreme, but Relevant, Example This will become all the more obvious if and when North Korea's regime collapses, at which point it is likely to be absorbed into South Korea.
When that happens, we will then be looking at a country in which the northern areas, in spite of an identical ethnic makeup and an extremely similar long-term history, will be much, much poorer than the southern areas.
Some Germans to this day are resentful of how much in taxpayer wealth poured out of the west into the east. But that will look like nothing compared to the taxpayer wealth that will flow from the South to the North following a reunification of Korea.
As the BBC observed: Incomes in South Korea are 10 to 20 times higher than they are in North Korea — a much bigger gap than that between East and West Germany. That means that if reunification happened, the economic jolt would be much, much greater.
Already, North Koreans who defect find that their skills aren't adequate for South Korea.Uncle Sam with his hands cut off; the head of the Statue of Liberty impaled on a bayonet; a trash can decorated with the Stars and Stripes: these are some of the striking images with which Cuban propaganda has represented the United States over the past half-century and ashio-midori.com://ashio-midori.com · The Cuban-Style clothes is an outfit in Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories unlocked upon completing the mission Havana Good Time.
It is made up of white jeans, brown wristwatch, patterned short-sleeve shirt and brown ashio-midori.com · If the description of the Cuban on the Elitás Travel website has changed, the relevant quote should, I feel, be either changed accordingly, or a second quote should be added with the description in both quotes explaining which is current and which is historical, preferably with a note of which update changed the description (if known)ashio-midori.com:Cuban_ · Kristina Arriaga de Bucholz discusses the intersection of religious freedom and women's rights around the ashio-midori.com://ashio-midori.com · Two Cuban Transitions [hereinafter Mesa-Lago, Social Safety Net], in The Cuban Re- search Institute, TRANSITION IN CUBA: NEW CHALLENGES FOR U.S.
POLICY , (Lisandro Pdrez, ed., ) (noting that in the cost to the Cuban Government ashio-midori.com?article=&. · A closer examination of Pilar's painting of the Statue of Liberty and its associations with punk culture clarifies the creative ways in which Dreaming in Cuban negotiates communist and capitalist allegiances to empower diverse ashio-midori.com://ashio-midori.com