Ethics is a branch of philosophy, also known as moral philosophy.
Hinduism and Hindu philosophy Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions Sanskrit: Jainism may have roots dating back to the times of the Indus Valley Civilization.
These religio-philosophical traditions were later grouped under the label Hinduism. Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, [note 1] in South Asia. It includes ShaivismVaishnavism and Shaktism  among numerous other traditionsand a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karmadharmaand societal norms.
Hinduism is a categorization of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs. Important Indian philosophical concepts include dharmakarmasamsaramoksha and ahimsa. Indian philosophers developed a system of epistemological reasoning pramana and logic and investigated topics such as Ontology metaphysicsBrahman - AtmanSunyata - Anattareliable means of knowledge epistemologyPramanasvalue system axiology and other topics.
The Kural literature of c. Buddhism mostly disappeared from India after the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinentsurviving in the Himalayan regions and south India.
Nyaya survived into the 17th century as Navya Nyaya "Neo-Nyaya", while Samkhya gradually lost its status as an independent school, its tenets absorbed into Yoga and Vedanta.
The Samkhya school traditionally traces itself back to sage Kapila.
Therefore, they sought to investigate the sources of correct knowledge or epistemology. It includes, for example, the classic Hindu rejoinders against Buddhist not-self anatta arguments.
Whatever we experience is a composite of these atoms. The first three categories are defined as artha which can perceived and they have real objective existence. They also held that the Vedas were "eternal, authorless, [and] infallible" and that Vedic injunctions and mantras in rituals are prescriptive actions of primary importance.
Other[ edit ] While the classical enumeration of Indian philosophies lists six orthodox schools, there are other schools which are sometimes seen as orthodox.
Jainism is essentially a transtheistic religion of ancient India. Jain philosophy attempts to explain the rationale of being and existence, the nature of the Universe and its constituents, the nature of bondage and the means to achieve liberation.
Jain philosophical concepts like AhimsaKarmaMoksaSamsara and the like are common with other Indian religions like Hinduism and Buddhism in various forms.
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Their theories are extracted from mentions of Ajivikas in the secondary sources of ancient Hindu Indian literature, particularly those of Jainism and Buddhism which polemically criticized the Ajivikas. They held that it was impossible to obtain knowledge of metaphysical nature or ascertain the truth value of philosophical propositions;  and even if knowledge was possible, it was useless and disadvantageous for final salvation.
They were seen as sophists who specialized in refutation without propagating any positive doctrine of their own. Their main sacred text is the Guru Granth Sahib.
The fundamental beliefs include constant spiritual meditation of God 's name, being guided by the Guru instead of yielding to capriciousness, living a householder's life instead of monasticism, truthful action to dharam righteousness, moral dutyequality of all human beings, and believing in God's grace.
Modern Indian philosophy[ edit ] From left to right: Parliament of World ReligionsIn response to colonialism and their contact with Western philosophy19th century Indians developed new ways of thinking now termed Neo-Vedanta and Hindu modernism.
Their ideas focused on the universality of Indian philosophy particularly Vedanta and the unity of different religions. It was during this period that Hindu modernists presented a single idealized and united " Hinduism.Western Ethics, on the other hand, has more of an emphasis on self and what is rationally or logically true.
Furthermore, Western Ethics places more emphasis on law and justice, whereas Eastern Ethics states that one must do what is right and expected and the universe will take care of the rest.
Eastern Versus Western Religion. In addition, the differences between Eastern and Western religions is evident by the way they view the relationship between humans and other beings. In Buddhism, humans, animals, and even the Buddha himself are seen as equals.
Even though religions differ in the East and West, the goal of religion. The second wave of feminism is characterized by the international elements of feminism and culminated with the first UN Decade of women ()w which “accentuated the divides between Western and non-Western feminisms (Gurel, 86)”.
In his dialogue Republic, Plato uses Socrates to argue for justice that covers both the just person and the just City ashio-midori.come is a proper, harmonious relationship between the warring parts of the person or city.
Hence, Plato's definition of justice is that justice is the having and doing of what is one's own. There might still be a difference between Chinese and Western traditions with respect to which strains of thought become dominant or at least prevalent, but that difference does not appear to come under the heading of radical incommensurability.
Self and Culture. culture.
STUDY. PLAY. Cultural Models. What are the Major Cultural Differences between Eastern and Western Cultures? The two cultures foster differences in self-construal East Asian = interdependent self-construal Western .