A description of the factors contributing to the diversity of life in an environment

Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles The eastern Aegean region is home to a large number of marine mammals which are classified either as at risk or data deficient. This habitat is in desperate need of protection, as it is subjected to a wide range of anthropogenic threats. The aim of Archipelagos is to better understand and monitor the habitat structure and population dynamics of cetaceans around the eastern Aegean islands.

A description of the factors contributing to the diversity of life in an environment

De Silva and John M. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Sub-Saharan Africa suffers by far the greatest malaria burden worldwide and is currently undergoing a profound demographic change, with a growing proportion of its population moving to urban areas.

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Urbanisation is generally expected to reduce malaria transmission; however the disease still persists in African cities, in some cases at higher levels than in nearby rural areas.

This paper aims to collate and analyse risk factors for urban malaria transmission throughout sub-Saharan Africa and to discuss their implications for control. A systematic search on malaria and urbanisation was carried out focusing on sub-Saharan Africa.

Particular interest was taken in vector breeding sites in urban and periurban areas. A variety of urban vector breeding sites were catalogued, the majority of which were artificial, including urban agriculture, tyre tracks, and ditches. Natural breeding sites varied according to location.

Low socioeconomic status was a significant risk factor for malaria, often present in peri-urban areas. A worrying trend was seen in the adaptation of malaria vector species to the urban environment.

Urban malaria is highly focused and control programs should reflect this. As urbanisation continues and vector species adapt, continued monitoring and control of urban malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is essential. Background Despite recent declines in Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission, largely due to increased distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets LLINs and a switch to artemisinin-based combination therapy ACT drugs, sub-Saharan Africa still suffers greatly from the disease.

In West Africa, the population growth rate for urban areas is estimated at 6.

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As Africa becomes increasingly urbanized, factors contributing to urban malaria will become more relevant. The general consensus is that urbanization will lead to decreased malaria transmission. One recent modelling study predicts a Malaria vector species are known to prefer clean water for breeding, which is difficult to come by in polluted urban areas, and the higher ratio of humans to mosquitoes is also thought to lead to a decreased human biting rate [ 5 ].

However, despite these encouraging factors, malaria transmission persists in African cities and, in some cases, at even higher levels than in surrounding areas [ 6 ]. Indeed, there are African cities experiencing entomological inoculation rates EIRs greater than 80 infective bites per person per year [ 7 ].

Thylacine - Wikipedia

A variety of factors may contribute to this, including socioeconomic status, urban agricultural practices and poorly-monitored land use [ 8 ]. Uncontrolled urban expansion can lead to increased malaria transmission as town planners are unable to keep up with sprawling city boundaries and rural practices, which are conducive to vector breeding sites and incorporated into the urban fringes.

Furthermore, areas of low socioeconomic status, often at the periphery of cities, are at particular risk. Here, poor-quality housing, unpaved roads, and reduced access to healthcare provide little protection against the disease [ 9 ].

A number of systematic reviews have investigated the impact of urbanization on malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa [ 10 — 12 ], dividing transmission into urban, periurban, and rural settings. Annual EIRs compiled across dozens of African cities show a strong tendency for transmission to increase in a gradient from urban to periurban to rural areas—in the most recent meta-analysis, the average EIRs were However, urban malaria transmission varies according to a number of additional factors such as location e.

This paper aims to identify the important factors in urban malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, to better understand their interactions, and to discuss their relevance to policy makers in an increasingly urbanized continent.

A description of the factors contributing to the diversity of life in an environment

Literature Search A systematic search on the impact of urbanisation on malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa was carried out in April by the first named author on the following electronic databases:Introduction. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a behavioral/developmental disorder characterized clinically by delays and qualitative differences in communication and social interactions well as repetitive behaviors and restricted interests.

Sub-Saharan Africa suffers by far the greatest malaria burden worldwide and is currently undergoing a profound demographic change, with a growing proportion of its population moving to urban areas.

Urbanisation is generally expected to reduce malaria transmission; however the disease still persists in African cities, in some cases at higher levels than in nearby rural areas. Influences of Business Environment - The business environment is constantly changing as time goes by.

There are several factors that affect the aspects of the business environment such as benefits, costs, and risks of conducting business. The thylacine (/ ˈ θ aɪ l ə s iː n / THY-lə-seen, or / ˈ θ aɪ l ə s aɪ n / THY-lə-syne, also / ˈ θ aɪ l ə s ɪ n /; Thylacinus cynocephalus) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern ashio-midori.com is commonly known as the Tasmanian tiger (because of its striped lower back) or the Tasmanian wolf (because of its canid-like appearance, traits and attributes).

Updated world stock indexes. Get an overview of major world indexes, current values and stock market data. Sub-Saharan Africa suffers by far the greatest malaria burden worldwide and is currently undergoing a profound demographic change, with a growing proportion of its population moving to urban areas. Urbanisation is generally expected to reduce malaria transmission; however the disease still persists in African cities, in some cases at higher levels than in nearby rural areas. Context. Numerous policy and research reports call for leadership to build quality work environments, implement new models of care, and bring health and wellbeing to .

Native to. The eastern Aegean region is home to a large number of marine mammals which are classified either as at risk or data deficient. This habitat is in desperate need of protection, as it is subjected to a wide range of anthropogenic threats. Efforts to Increase Research and to Translate Findings; End of Life References ; This research Web page resource focuses on end-of-life care.

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